Why you should know more about how firestop is tested.

Understanding more about HOW firestop is tested will help you understand what is important when inspecting it. It will help you understand how firestop installations can fail when they are not installed properly. This series will address a wide array of issues while discussing how firestop is tested.


If you want to understand firestop and why certain requirements are important then you need to understand how firestop is tested. You could dig out the standards from ASTM or UL and read all about the process for firestop tests. But, that is a bit dry. So, this will be an attempt to explain how firestop is tested without getting dry and technical. There are a lot of pieces to this puzzle so bare with me as we discuss each one. Along the way you will also garner a better understanding for WHY all this stuff matters. This will be a series of interconnected posts that will loop back into each other and connect with former posts so you can skip what you already know or beef up on things you may want to know more about. Let’s get started.


WHY: Why do we test firestop? The basic answer is to ensure safe installations and to keep all the various manufactures on the same playing field and playing with the same rules.


If you want to create a firestop material and have any hope of selling it in the US, you have to first have it tested by a third party testing agency. There are a number of companies who will do the test, but the lions share of the through penetration tests are done at Underwriters Laboratories. There are more and they include such as Omega Point Labs, Warnock Hersey and others. Having a material tested by a third-party testing agency means that each manufactures material will be subject to the same type of critique and will have to meet the same expectations in the test burn.  This means that the end user can have the same expectations of any product installed according to the details in the tested and listed documentation. Understanding why certain elements of a test are important requires you to know more about HOW things are tested. Here is a start to the explanation:


Here are some basics:

Rated floor or wall– the assembly is built, allowed time to cure, set on the furnace. The assembly is peppered with thermocouples’ connected to computers so they can make sure the non-fire side of the assembly doesn’t get too hot. There are specific requirements to how they are placed. You can read more about if you wish by digging into the actual test requirements. We wont get into those specifics here other than to say that the edges of the assembly are not really considered important to this particular test because they are covered in the test for rated joints. This test assembly will be tested for an F rating and for a T rating.


The F rating is the time it takes for fire to breach the assembly. If you are testing a gypsum wall for 1 hour and fire breaches the wall before 60 minutes then you will fail the test. If it breaches at 61 minutes you have at least passed for a one-hour assembly. The T rating is a bit more complex, but still very important. We will save that for our next blog topic, so don’t forget to check in with us next week.

The technical term for this is to ensure that the F rating equals the T rating. There is a whole other topic that needs to be addressed which is the hose stream test, which is an important part of the test and again warrants its own blog post to come shortly.


Rated Joints– the test for the rated joints is basically the same as the test for the rated assemblies, but with a few additions. Now, we are dealing with two different assemblies. The way they are connected will provide the “code required” continuity of a rated assembly. So, if you have a floor joining a wall and they are both rated, we want to know that the joint between the two assemblies will be capable of withstanding the same rigors as the two assemblies independently. The tests are similar but there is one added dimension for many joint assemblies. (note we are not talking about Perimeter Containment/Edge of Slab firestop)


Joint assemblies can be either static (no expectation of movement) or they can be dynamic. Dynamic joints are subject to very specific movement criterion (another topic for later) the joints also require that the F rating and the T rating are the same, meaning that significant amounts of heat wont pass through the rated joint. This expectation will make more sense once we post the information on T ratings shortly.


Through Penetration- As you might expect, the test for through penetrations is very similar to the test for rated assemblies and rated joints. The differences are that we don’t have the T rating requirement. The T rating is a measure of thermal transfer (how much heat goes through the assembly). If you have a copper pipe running through a concrete floor the heat will be on the non-fire side of the assembly very quickly because copper is an excellent conductor. Therefor the T-rating requirement is not in the test standard but rather in the building code (you guessed it, a topic for later discussion). These through penetration tests often have a requirement that the penetrant be rigidly supported. This causes problems for the firestop installer in some cases, but causes even bigger problems for the long-term impact of the firestop if it is not complied with. This is a common deficiency in firestop installations.


If you have attended one of our training seminars or if you already know a bit about firestop you may be thinking…she didn’t even mention the hose stream test. This is critical to understanding why certain elements of the firestop listed assembly are so critical, such as sealant depth, annular space and other topics, but it also helps you understand how various drywall patch applications would not survive the laboratory test conditions AND you guessed it- it’s a topic for another blog post!


So we have basically set the groundwork for the next few months of posts. I hope you take the time to write in and let us know what you think and what else you think we should include. If you need help on a project don’t hesitate to contact us. We are happy to help you improve the level of life safety on your building.



Plastic Sprinkler Pipes? You need to know this!

Hi everyone!  I had the pleasure of speaking to a great group of fire fighters yesterday and in our discussion it became apparent that I needed to share this information with the rest of you, so here it is!

If you have a project that is using plastic sprinkler pipes you need to check this link.  It will give you a list of materials that are “non-compatible”.  Many of them will (over time) etch holes in the sprinkler pipes.  There are a number of products, but since we talk about firestop here you need to know that there are three firestop materials that have compatibility concerns.  If it is useful to know the other materials, please review the list and refer back to it regularly as it is updated on an as needed basis.

A basic explanation of the problems non-compatible materials can cause:

“Amorphous polymers like CPVC derive their strength from the fact that they are long chain-like molecules all tangled together. A failure of the plastic occurs when enough chains break or become disentangled that a breach develops in the solid polymer. This breakage and/or disentanglement can be caused by strong mechanical stresses (e.g., impact damage), strong chemical effects (e.g., solvation or plasticization), or frequently some combination of moderate levels of both. Only a relatively small number of chemicals are capable of achieving disentanglement of the polymer chains all by themselves without the assistance of some mechanical or other external force being exerted on the plastic as well. When both chemical effects and external mechanical forces are needed to contribute to overcoming the strength of the material, the mode of failure is known as environmental stress cracking.”

This was pulled from the Lubrizol website and you can read the rest of the publication here by downloading the file on the right hand side.

If you have any questions, about this its probably best you contact Lubrizol directly.  If you have questions about firestop, you can always reach out to me.  Enjoy the rest of your week and as always, keep “Saving lives for the Life of the Building!”tm

Hospital needs fire safety retrofit due to poor construction

Not that you need it, but here is proof that doing it right the first time is just good business.  10 years later the contractor is being made to remedy problems they didn’t take care of the first time.  Having a company like HLS on your team will ensure this doesn’t happen on your project whether you are the building owner or the GC.  Read the article here.  If you want to learn more about our process contact us here.

Which projects require special inspection of firestop?

This requirement for third party special inspection is not going to mean that EVERY project needs this level of scrutiny. The building code clearly relegates this to three types of buildings. 1) High-rise structures 2) Risk Category III 3) Risk Category IV. Don’t go break out your code book here. I promised to save you from that, so let’s break this down a bit.  Lest we risk being called out for plagiarism, please know we give credit to the IBC for items in underlined bold italics.


First, the term high-rise conjures up a mental image for most people, but let’s be clear about what the term actually means. A high-rise structure is defined by the code as a building with an occupied floor located more than 75 feet above the lowest level of the fire department vehicle access. This means that you can take the same building and put it in a different jurisdiction and based on the fire fighting equipment, it will be considered a high-rise structure in one jurisdiction but not in another.


Next, let’s discuss risk category III and IV. Before we start however, please understand the building code defines occupant load as the number of persons for which a means of egress of a building or portion of a building is designed. This is important, because it is part of what can land a project in the risk category III. So, let’s start there. Risk Category III is defined by the code as structures that represent a substantial hazard to human life in the event of a failure. This means that, because they are buildings that are important to the community, they should be protected with an extra level or scrutiny that is provided by this requirement for special inspection of firestop. Risk Category III structures are including but not limited to the following:

  • Public assembly building with a occupancy load over 300
  • Elementary or secondary school or day care what occupancy over 250
  • Adult education with occupancy over 500
  • Groups I-2 with occupancy over 50 (without surgery or emergency)

Medical, surgical, psychiatric, nursing or custodial care on a 24-hour basis of more than five persons who are not capable of self-preservation. Including but not limited to hospitals, nursing homes, mental hospitals and detoxification facilities

  • Group I-3 (penitentiary, jail or prison)
  • A building with occupancy over 5000
  • Power generating station, water treatment, waste water facility and any other public utility facility not included in risk category IV
  • Buildings or structures not included in risk category IV containing quantities of toxic works flows of materials that exceed certain thresholds and would be hazardous to the public if released


The occupancy load will vary based on the use of the building, but also because of the familiarity and agility of the occupants. For example, people who may be in a public assembly building are less likely to be familiar with the various ways to enter and exit the building, as compared to the people who might be in a building for adult education. And while the occupants of an Elementary or secondary school are likely to be very familiar with the building they are less likely to be expected to exit the building safely an emergency. Additionally occupants of Group I-2 (hospital) are likely going to need assistance to evacuate a building and it’s very likely you don’t want occupants of I-3 (jail) structures being able to freely evacuate a building. If there is a fire in any of these types of buildings you can see that there is a substantial hazard to human life in the event of a failure.


The difference between Risk Category III and IV is that IV buildings are considered essential to the community in which they serve. Schools in a community are essential to that community but in the event of a fire the children can still be educated in a different setting until the school is repaired. However if that same school were designated as an emergency shelter then it would fall into risk category IV because now it is considered essential to the community.


Now, let’s look at other buildings that would fall into risk category IV. “Buildings and other structures designated as essential facilities including but not limited to” the following:

  • Group I-2 with surgery and/or emergency treatment
  • Fire, rescue, ambulance, police stations and emergency vehicle garages
  • Designated earthquake, hurricane or other emergency shelters
  • Designated emergency preparedness, communications and operations centers
  • Power generating stations and other public utility needed for emergency backup for risk category IV
  • Aviation control tower, air traffic control center and emergency aircraft hangers
  • Buildings and other structures having critical national defense function
  • Water storage or pump for fire suppression
  • Buildings and other structures containing the quantities of highly toxic materials that exceed certain thresholds and pose a threat to public released

That covers where third-party special inspection is mandated by the building code. That said however, a jurisdiction can require a third-party special inspection of fire stop on any project where they may feel they have a shortfall in either manpower or expertise. This can even be required by a jurisdiction still on one of the earlier codes (2009 or earlier as this requirement first came about in the 2012 code body).


A jurisdiction could even require special inspection of a specific construction element if they wish to. One example could be requiring a third party inspection for grease duct wrap on kitchen exhaust ducts. Though it is not required in the codes, it could still be a jurisdictional requirement should it be deemed necessary in a particular jurisdiction. Some jurisdictions have required this even prior to the creation of the ASTM standards for inspection of firestop; in fact to date there is no similar standard for the inspection of grease duct wrap.  If you are interested in learning about some of the common problems found with grease duct wrap installations and why they are such a concern, contact us for more information.  If you want to be able to evaluate a potential inspector to determine if they are capable of conducting the required inspections please contact us and we will help you understand the codes and standards related to this new requirement contact us.

Why is special inspection of firestop now required?

Are these building code changes going to impact your next project?

(Round 2 why the code changed)

Some of you are thinking, “ The building inspectors already look at the firestop.” Or maybe you are thinking, “It’s not that complicated.” If you look at ASTM E2174, which is the standard for third party inspection of firestop through penetrations and talk to an inspector about what is required to comply with an inspection at this level, most building officials will tell you they do not have the time for that. Some will even admit they don’t have the training to look at it adequately. Combine that, with the fact that some jurisdictions with strong local third party inspection firms have reported that the failure rate on most projects the first few inspections is generally around 50%. That is typical, which means of course some project teams are stronger, but it also means that some are failing inspections well over half the time. Now, to understand that better, you have to look at what goes into as ASTM E 2174 inspection.


First the inspector needs to do one of two types of inspection. They either need to witness the inspection on 10% of each type of installation type or they need to conduct destructive testing on 2% of each type. When inspecting a firestop installation the following items must be reviewed by the inspector and they must confirm that each item conforms to the submitted and approved firestop assembly. That assembly must be tested and listed with a third party agency (most commonly Underwriters Laboratories or UL). When conducting an inspection according to this standard all of these elements must be reviewed. Each line here could warrant a series of blog posts because there is so much more information that needs to be known than what is just written here, but this is a decent start at least:rated assembly-to ensure it conforms with what is allowed in firestop details:

  • rated assembly-to ensure it conforms with what is allowed in firestop details
    • stud depth is a critical often overlooked component
  • penetrating item- to ensure they match in material, size etc
    • changes in material or size can have a major impact
  • sleeve- is it allowed, required or optional
  • insulation- to ensure both material and thickness conform
  • type of firestop material – manufacturer and material name
    • not all firestop is the same, even from the same manufacturer
  • annular space- minimum and maximum
    • both are very important and must be conformed to
  • sealant depth and any required bead of sealant
    • this requires an entirely different discussion
  • backing material- type, depth and compression
    • all three can be critical
  • square ducts over a certain size require retaining angle
  • plastic pipe over a certain size it requires a firestop collar
    • collars require washers and anchor type will vary based on substrate
    • plastic pipe over another size requires all that plus foil tape


You want your project being inspected by someone who knows how to look at each of these elements to confirm it conforms to the firestop details. You also want them to know WHY each is critical to the life safety of a building. If they can share this information with the team during the mandatory pre-construction meeting it has a tendency to increase the perceived level of importance for the entire team and may even increase team collaboration.  HLS pre-con meetings have been called “A GAME CHANGER” by some of our project teams.


If your project is hiring a third party inspection firm who does everything under the sun, including firestop and you want to know whether or not you are getting what you are paying for, contact us and we will help you make sure that your project is actually complying with the requirements of the codes and standards. You may be surprised by everything they should be doing.

Changes to your local building code and what it means

Are these building code changes going to impact your next project?

(Round 1- why the code changed)

Who has the time to read through the building code to look for changes, heck even if you did have the time, who wants to read building code. It’s right up there with wanting to give the dog a bath or clean your car. Lucky for you, I’m kinda into that code stuff, so I will take the boring blah di blah, blah of the codes and standards and put it into a few related segments that will help you understand how and IF this code change will impact your next project. In this series, we will also discuss how to avoid some of the common pitfalls that projects have encountered. If your project is being built under the 2012 or 2015 IBC, then this is for you. If your project is being built under the 2009 code or any earlier code; sit back and relax, because none of this matters for you. But flag this post just the same because it won’t be long before you will need to know this information.

This series of blogs will talk about why this code change came about, which types of buildings this will impact, what this means to your project, the pitfalls that you want to avoid, where to find the requirements related to this. We will blend the requirements of the codes and the standards, so you don’t have to hop back and forth between them.

The code change we are talking about here is in chapter 17, which is the chapter on Special Inspections. Third-party special inspection is required on anything that requires an extra critical eye because of the complexities of the installation and potential impact to the building and the safety of the occupants if installations don’t conform to the requirements. For example, elements of construction that are integral to the structural integrity of the building, such as concrete, steel welding or bolting, spray applied fireproofing and seismic elements; all require special inspection. Firestop is integral to the life safety of a project because, if it is not done correctly, then the compartmentation will fail and the expected level of life safety will not be met. Compartmentation is the concept of keeping a fire boxed in and not letting it spread beyond the compartments boundaries for a specific time period. It the compartmentation fails, this poses a risk to the lives of the building occupants, first responders who are rescuing people and fighting the fire and also increases the opportunity for property damage.

Bare in mind, this special inspection requirement does not apply to all buildings, but we will outline which projects are impacted by this change in another blog post. For now, let’s get started with why these changes came about.

I’m going to give you the short version, but know there is a very long and involved back-story and if you want to know more I suggest you contact the International Firestop Council and you will get some great answers.

I will avoid going into a history lesson on this, but let’s say firestop started being required on projects rather earnestly in the 1980’s. Not many people knew much about it and back then inspectors looked for “red stuff” around penetrations and that was good. Shady installers started mixing Kool-aide with drywall mud because then the inspectors would get what they were looking for “red stuff”. Inspectors caught on and installers learned more and things improved. However, one thing remains the same. If a drywaller or plumber decides to install their own firestop, who does the work? Typically it is scope given to the apprentices with little or nor direction. How is anyone supposed to get it done right that way? How is anyone supposed to think that firestop is important, if it is relegated to the apprentice level?

Then came the specialty contractor. The idea is, that if they specialize in this scope of work, then they must know if better. This is the case often enough, but all together too often the same mentality prevails and the level of training of the field installers is lacking. This is not entirely their fault though. If an inspector walks a project and points out three different things that are wrong with the firestop, then the installer will assume that the rest of the things are done right. This is not going to be entirely accurate.

So, then it’s the inspectors fault?

NO.. Unequivocally NO.

I can’t tell you how many inspectors I’ve talked to who tell me that they have some training, but still are not going to have the knowledge base or the time to review firestop to the level of this standard. When they learn what is required by the new special inspection, they often shake their heads.


Because there is no way they have the time to inspect firestop to that level of scrutiny, not to mention the time to generate the reports that are required for the project.  Many inspectors are grateful that the requirement will make buildings in their jurisdictions safer and remove the burden from them.   It will relieve the burden of inspection from them, but they are still going to need to now what to look for to ensure the special inspectors allowed to work in their jurisdiction are doing what they are supposed to. These are inspectors who understand the importance of firestop as a critical element to the life safety of a building. Not the ONLY one, but certainly one element and certainly critical.

This is why the codes have changed. It has become apparent that the level of scrutiny needs to be increased and the burden cannot be placed on building officials on all projects. They will still have to inspect firestop, but not on projects where this special inspection requirement is mandated. We will get into more about what the changes mean to your project and how you can prepare for your next project.

If you are a building inspector wanting more information these code changes and how they will impact projects in your jurisdiction? Please contact us and we will send you some help.

Excellent video about firestop inspection

Happy Friday.  It is hot here in NJ, so I am making life a little easier for you (and me) and giving you a great video.  If you are responsible for firestop, whether you are an installer, inspector, architect, general contractor or ANYONE who should know what to look for  when looking at firestop, please watch this video.  It is a great start to learning a few things that are very important or refresh what you already know.  A big thank you to the IFC and STI for making this video available to everyone. Have a great weekend!

Watch the video here-


The answer to this question depends entirely on your UL listed detail. Here is the verbiage pulled from a random UL listed detail that allows for a plastic sleeve.

Nonmetallic Sleeve – (Optional) – Nom 6 in. (152 mm) diam (or smaller) Schedule 40 polyvinyl chloride pipe sleeve cast or grouted into concrete flush with both surfaces of floor or wall.

So, clearly with this particular detail, it is possible to firestop to a plastic sleeve. The key is whether or not the detail you are using will allow it. It needs to. If it doesn’t then you either need to modify the field condition to match the detail, or you need to get a detail that matches the field condition; even if that means obtaining an engineering judgment.

Here are some things to think about if you have a project using plastic sleeves. For this discussion we are going to assume the sleeve is placed in a rated concrete assembly and not in a gypsum assembly. If you have questions about plastic sleeves in a gypsum assembly feel free to reach out to us for help.

More likely than not, the firestop detail will state that the sleeve MUST be flush with the surface of the concrete. If it isn’t, then it is likely the detail will require that the firestop must be recessed into the sleeve to the point that it is in the same plane as the concrete.

Why does this matter? If the plastic sleeve is not flush with the wall and the installer firestops to the outside edge of the sleeve, can you picture what will happen when the plastic pipe melts?

Depending on the type of plastic, it will begin to melt at temperatures between 200 and 500 F. Under the fire test conditions, this is fewer than 5 min into a 1 hour fire test, regardless of the type of plastic pipe you are talking about. The plastic pipe will melt away and take with it the firestop that is not secured in the opening of the rated wall.   This will leave a void in the rated assembly through which fire, smoke and toxic gasses can pass prematurely. If the firestop is installed in the same plane as the rated wall then, when the intumescent material begins to expand, it will be contained by the concrete and it will be able to maintain the integrity of the rated assembly.

One thing we often see on projects are the plastic sleeves used to hold the formwork together when concrete is poured. There are three different scenarios we have seen that have been used to resolve this breach in a rated wall. If you do something different on your projects, please let us know.

  1. Often times these are filled with grout and many inspectors are okay with this. The judgment is based on the fact that the code allows openings to be grouted back if they are less than a certain size (“shall not exceed 6” dia”…”shall not exceed 1 sq ft”*) and this application is well under that. However the section of code allowing this does not mention grouting inside a sleeve, let alone a plastic sleeve that would be combustible.*
  2. Other projects have required the plastic to be removed a certain depth and the remaining opening to be grouted in. The problem here (and above) is that the code requires that “the thickness of the concrete, grout or mortar shall be the full thickness of the assembly” and this is not going to be a viable solution if your inspector calls out this code section. If they do, contact us and we can help you navigate the code for a better solution*
  3. It is possible to get an engineering judgment or maybe even a tested assembly depending on the manufacturer being used on the project.

* NFPA 2012 similar verbiage can be found in the IBC as well section 714.4.1.1…Now please keep in mind that both sections of the code noted here are in areas where they discuss PENETRATIONS and in most jurisdictions the sleeve is considered a penetration and despite the fact that this section of code refers to metal penetrations the AHJ’s in my experience have tended to allow this section of code to be used despite the fact that there is no metal penetration. Check with your local building officials if you have any questions because they are the ones who can give you the answers to what will work in your area.

In the grand scheme of firestop problems this ranks lower on the list than many others but since we are having a discussion about sleeves and in particular plastic sleeves, we thought that this should be noted.

If you find we have missed something in the discussion of firestop sleeves please let us know and we will gladly add your voice to the discussion. If you have additional topics you want us to discuss, please let us know. If you have a project you want us to look at we are happy to help make your project better. We travel the world to help ensure projects get their firestop right. You will be hard pressed to find someone who enjoys THIS scope of work more than we do. Let us help make sure none of these problems, or a long list of other common problems do not crop up on your next project.

Firestop- It’s “good enough”… right?

This 20 minute video will help you see what happens when firestop is not installed properly.  Imagine being in the building, in the room right next to where the first started and the firestop installers did what they thought was “good enough”.  This is what would happen.


The last post talked about the problems with selecting a sleeve size without considering the depth of the insulation correctly. This posting will continue the discussion of common errors and potential solutions. Please read the last few posts if you have not already because we are building on what has already been discussed.

We are making two assumptions:

1) We assume you are going through a rated wall, because otherwise firestop is not part of your discussion. If the wall is NON rated this sleeve size might be acceptable, but in a rated wall you have issues with regard to the annular space requirements.

2) We are assuming the application is going through concrete. If you are going through drywall, then the opening should simply be enlarged and firestopped correctly.

Wrong move #2:

Our next scenario the contractor decides that 2” insulation plus a 4” pipe and 2” more of insulation means they will need an 8” sleeve. Many details will require SOME annular space, and even the details that call for 0”-2” annular space will not allow for CONTINUAL POINT OF CONTACT (stay tuned for a blog on when you can allow continual point of contact) which is what you will have in this scenario. Having adequate annular space is key to the installation working as expected. For now let’s just say that the annular space impacts the volume of material that can be installed and the volume of material will impact the results in a fire. While you may have a detail that allows for point of contact it won’t allow for continual point of contact because some sealant needs to be installed. So this means the sleeve is going to look really goofy when just the bare pipe is going through it. It is going to look incredibly over sized since it needs to be more than 2x the size of the pipe.

Potential fix #1:

Our last post, talked about a potential fix being using the mineral wool required in the firestop installation in lieu of the pipe insulation. Before doing this be sure to review the specifications because this may not be allowed and for various reasons it may be a bad idea, but that is for the mechanical and plumbing guys to deal with.

Potential fix #2:

It may be possible to use the insulation but to reduce the thickness where the pipe goes through the wall so that the firestop materials can be used and conform to the UL listed assembly.  Again check with the plumber or mechanical contractor for their professional input.

Potential fix #3:

No one will like this solution, but it’s still worth noting if this problem is caught before the pipe has been run. The contractor can core the hole bigger so it can accommodate the appropriate installation.  Then you would eliminate the sleeve all together, so be sure your firestop system will allow the new field parameters. Remember that the details in your firestop submittal need to match the field conditions.

Potential fix #4:

There are a number of variables that can be considered so if none of these solutions work to resolve your problem please contact us and we will see if we can not help you find a better solution based on your particular circumstances.

Resolve the problem early- pick the right sized sleeve:

So, for a 4” pipe with 2” insulation you are going to need to use a 10” sleeve. That will only give you 1” of annular space (assuming that your pipe is centered in the opening- if it is off center then you are likely to have min 0” max 2”- but again you won’t have continual point of contact because that would likely result in a non-compliant installation. Contact us at info@halpertlifesafety.com or call us at 201-250-4193 and we will walk you through some potential options. We won’t address it on this blog because there are too many variables to getting this right and you would be reading forever. Just call us, and we will figure it out together.

If you want your construction team to be more aware of these topics before, during and after construction; then we can help. We have conducted countless training seminars for architects, engineers, inspectors and a wide array of construction staff. If you are interested in learning more, building a stronger team and making sure your projects perform better in the event of a fire; please contact us to arrange for a training program.